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【转载】英语阅读理解100问之 如何推理判断题?  

2017-04-15 21:28:45|  分类: 高中英语教学与研 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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        推理判断题要求考生根据文章提供的事实和线索进行逻辑推理,推断出作者没有提到的或者没有明说的事实或者可能发生的事实。这类旨在考查考生透过词语的字面意义去理解作者的言外之意或弦外之音的能力,属深层理解题。此类试题的设计常常包括infer, imply, suggest, conclude等词。

这类题的设问方式主要有:

(1) We can infer from the passage that ______.

(2) What can be inferred from the passage?

(3)Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?

(4)It can be inferred from Paragraph 3 that ______.

(5)The author suggest in this passage that ______.

(6)The writer implies that ______.

(7)It can be inferred that ______.

(8)It can be concluded from the passage that ______.

(9)On the whole, we can conclude that ______.

(10)From the text we can conclude that ______.

(11)After reading the passage we may conclude that ______.

(12)What conclusion can be drawn from the passage?

(13)The author is inclined to think that ______.

(14)When the writer talks about..., what he really means is that______.

(15)What's the writer's attitude towards...?

(16)What's the author's feeling towards...?

(17)In the writer's opinion...

理解文段的隐含信息包括:推测作者或人物的观点、态度、意图、身份、情感,对作者或文段所涉及的人物、事件作出评价等,属于深层理解,是语言学习者必须具备的交际能力之一。高考阅读理解的大部分题目都属于这一类型。要准确地理解文段的隐含信息,除了要熟练地掌握基本的语言知识,准确理解句子的字面意思外,还要求我们运用自己已有的知识、经验,结合文段的相关的信息进行推理、判断。下面结合实例来谈谈解答这类题目的方法。

We walked in so quietly that the nurse at the desk didn't even lift her eyes from the book. Mum pointed at a big chair by the door and I knew she wanted me to sit down. While I watched mouth open in surprise, Mum took off her hat and coat and gave them to me to hold. She walked quietly to the small room by the lift and took out a wet mop. She pushed the mop past the desk and as the nurse looked up, Mum nodded and said, "Very dirty floors." "Yes, I'm glad they've finally decided to clean them," the nurse answered. She looked at Mum strangely and said, "But aren't you working late?" Mum just pushed harder, each swipe(拖一下)of the mop taking her farther and farther down the hall. I watched until she was out of sight and the nurse had turned back to writing in the big book. After a long time Mum came back. Her eyes were shining. She quickly put the mop back and took my hand. As we turned to go out of the door, Mum bowed politely to the nurse and said, "Thank you." Outside, Mum told me, "Dagmar is fine. No fever." "You saw her, Mum?" "Of course. I told her about the hospital rules, and she will not expect us until tomorrow. Dad will stop worrying as well. It's a fine hospital. But such floors! A mop is no good. You need a brush."

1. When she took a mop from the small room what Mum really wanted to do was ______.
A. to clean the floor B. to please the nurse
C. to see a patient  D. to surprise the story-teller

2. After reading the story what can we infer about the hospital?
A. It is a children's hospital. B. It has strict rules about visiting hours.
C. The conditions there aren't very good. D. The nurses and doctors there don't work hard.

3. Which of the following words best describes Mum?
A. strange      B. warm-hearted C. clever       D. hard-working

1. 运用文段所叙述或描绘的事件背景提供的信息进行推理判断

第1道题要求读者判断"妈妈"从一间小房间拿拖把的真正意图是什么。应该说除了D选项与文段的信息完全无关外,其它三个选项相互间都有一定的干扰性,但只要我们注意到文段所叙述的事件的背景是在一家医院,再结合文段末尾作者与母亲之间的对话,就不难判断该题的正确答案是C选项。因为就常识而言,人们去医院的目的不外乎两个:1. 就诊;2. 探视病人。A选项展现的只是一种表面现象,不是"妈妈"拿拖把的"真正"目的;而"妈妈"去小房间拿拖把时是"轻轻地"走过去的,显然,也不是为了"取悦"护士,所以A、B两个选项都不符合文意。

2. 运用已有的经验、经历或常识进行推理判断

上文的第2道题要求读者判断所给的四个选项中那一个符合医院的实际情况。由于文段中没有相关的信息支持A选项,因此,可以排除;C、D两个选项与文段最后一段中"妈妈"说的"It's a fine hospital"有矛盾,因此,也可以排除。文段的第一句提到"We walked in so quietly that the nurse at the desk didn't even lift her eyes from the book"。根据常识我们知道,人们"轻轻地走"的原因无非存在两种可能性:1. 保持安静;2.避免被发现。联系到"妈妈"是冒充清洁工进入病房的,探视"Dagmar"时又提起"hospital rules",因此可以断定"我们如此轻轻地走进去"的目的不是为了"保持安静",而是"避免"被护士发现,从而可以进一步推断出"避免"被护士发现的原因是因为医院对探视病人的时间有严格规定,所以B选项是正确的。

3. 紧扣主题或话题,避免掉入细节事实的陷阱

有些题目要求读者根据文段的相关信息对文中人物的性格、心理状况、心智或品质作出判断,这时一定要扣紧文段的主题或话题,不要受一些细节事实的干扰。例如,上文的第3题实际上是要读者判断"妈妈"是一个什么样的人。A、B两个选项与文段提供的信息没有任何联系,可以排除。从文段中描绘的"妈妈"拿起拖把为医院拖地这一细节事实来看,似乎可以用 warm-hearted 这个词来形容她的品质。但是,只要记住文段主要叙述的是"‘妈妈'是如何在规定探望病人的时间之外进入病房探望Dagmar这一话题,就不难判断"妈妈"拿拖把拖地的最终目的是什么,从而进一步得出结论:只有用 clever 这个词描绘"妈妈"才最合适。

4. 注意文段中信息的科学性,运用已有的科学常识和学科知识进行推理判断

Sam and Joe were astronauts. There was once a very dangerous trip and the more experienced astronauts knew there was only a small chance of coming back alive. Sam and Joe, however, thought it would be exciting though a little dangerous. "We're the best men for the job," they said to the boss. "There may be problems, but we can find the answers." "They're the last people I'd trust," thought the boss. "But all the other astronauts have refused to go."

Once they were in space, Joe had to go outside to make some repairs. When the repairs were done, he tried to get back inside the spaceship. But the door was locked. He knocked but there was no answer. He knocked again, louder this time, and again no answer came. Then he hit the door as hard as he could and finally a voice said, "Who's there?" "It's me! Who else could it be?" shouted Joe. Sam let him in all right but you can imagine that Joe never asked to go on a trip with Sam again!

The writer tells this story to ______.
A. show the dangerous side of the astronauts' life
B. show the funny side of the astronauts' life
C. make people laugh
D. make people think

如果不从科学常识和学科知识的角度考虑,这四个选项都有一定的干扰性。但是有点文化和常识的人都知道,到目前为止有能力把人送入太空进行太空飞行,并且宇航员能离开飞行器进行太空行走的国家只有俄、美两个国家,而他们对宇航员的选拔都是严格的国家行为,不可能出现像文中第1自然段所叙述的那种由某个老板来挑选宇航员的情况;此外,有点物理常识的人都知道,在太空是没有空气的,飞行器的门也是真空的,而声音无法在真空中传播,因此,在太空工作的宇航员是不可能用敲门的方式把他(们)要进入太空飞行器的信息传达给舱内的人,所以,在第2自然段中描述的那种情况是不科学的。显然,作者写这篇文章的目的不过是为了搞笑而已,因此,C选项是正确的。

以上我们从四个方面分别讨论了理解文章隐含信息的基本方法。但有时候题目的设计不一定这么层次分明,可能需要读者同时从不同的角度对文段的信息进行综合分析、判断。例如该题,我们就可以从常识和学科知识两方面综合考虑文段信息的严肃性,从而进一步判断作者的写作目的。因此,应该在熟练掌握的基础上灵活地运用这些方法。

下附:2015湖北卷E篇的分析

      Science has a lot of uses. It can uncover laws of nature, cure diseases, make bombs, and help bridges to stand up. Indeed science is so good at what it does that there’s always a temptation(诱惑) to drag it into problems where it may not be helpful. David Brooks, author of The Social Animal: The Hidden Sources of Love, Character, and Achievement, appears to be the latest in a long line of writers who have failed to resist the temptation.
     Brooks gained fame for several books. His latest book The Social Animal, however, is more ambitious and serious than his earlier books. It is an attempt to deal with a set of weighty topics. The book focuses on big questions: What has science revealed about human nature? What are the sources of character? And why are some people happy and successful while others aren’t? 
     To answer these questions, Brooks surveys a wide range of disciplines(学科). Considering this, you might expect the book to be a dry recitation of facts. But Brooks has structured his book in an unorthodox(非常规的), and perhaps unfortunate, way. Instead of introducing scientific theories, he tells a story, within which he tries to make his points, perhaps in order to keep the reader’s attention. So as Harold and Erica, the hero and heroine in his story, live through childhood, we hear about the science of child development and as they begin to date we hear about the theory of sexual attraction. Brooks carries this through to the death of one of his characters.
     On the whole, Brooks’s story is acceptable if uninspired. As one would expect, his writing is mostly clear and, to be fair, some chapters stand out above the rest. I enjoyed, for instance, the chapter in which Harold discovers how to think on his own. While Harold and Erica are certainly not strong or memorable characters, the more serious problems with The Social Animal lie eslewhere. These problems partly involve Brooks’s attempt to translate his tale into science.
67. The author mentions the functions of science at the beginning of the passage to __________.
A. illustrate where science can be applied

B. demonstrate the value of Brooks’s new book
C. remind the reader of the importance of science

D. explain why many writers use science in their works
【解析】根据beginning of the passage,直接去找第一段,发现,题目里的functions与文中的uses是近义词,均为用处,功能的意思。分析如下:
Science has a lot of uses. It can uncover laws of nature, cure diseases, make bombs, and help bridges to stand up. Indeed science is so good at what it does that there’s always a temptation(诱惑) to drag it into problems where it may not be helpful. David Brooks, author of The Social Animal: The Hidden Sources of Love, Character, and Achievement, appears to be the latest in a long line of writers who have failed to resist the temptation.
一般情况下一个段落的开头或结尾是一个段落的主题句,本文主题句便是最后一句,前面讲的功能只是导入罢了,题目中的to是表目的,而红色划线部分,明白无误的告诉我们,The Social Animal的author是最近的一位have failed to resist the temptation的writer。故答案一目了然,前面的导入是为了最后的主题句作一个解释,所以选 D.
68. According to the author, which of the following could be a strength of the book?
A. Its strong basis.         B. Its convincing points.

C. Its clear writing.         D. Its memorable characters.
【解析】此题难度较高,需明白以下几点。1、注意according to the author这句话,在文中找不到,但是又很明显,肯定是作者对这本书发表的观点或者评论。2.a strength这个词汇可能会出现同义词,也可能不一定会出现,如果不出现的话一定会出现一些比较积极的评价。所以本题重要的是去找一些积极的评价,4个选项中哪一个出现了,就选哪一个。根据看段落优先看开头和结尾的原则,我们可以迅速锁定答案应该在第4段。大家请注意看:
On the whole, Brooks’s story is acceptable if uninspired. As one would expect, his writing is mostly clear and,……
都on the whole(总体而言)了,评论的信号有点强烈了啊亲们,而Brooks’ story不就是它的书了吗?还觉得不靠谱,直接来看答案好了,红体字部分与答案C那是一样一样的啊。至于有同学说可能选其他答案,我只能说,亲,还能不能愉快的玩耍了,有个别关键词不算数滴,得全部对上好不啦。
69. What is the author’s general attitude towards the book?
A. Contradictory. B. Supportive. C . Cautious. D. Critical.
【解析】首先,此题型与上一题类似,是关于作者的态度的。同样,需要去找作者的关于观点或者评论的词语或句子。说到这,亲们有木有发觉,这个题刚才好像做过啊。如果有,恭喜你,你答对了。答案和68题的位置重叠,
On the whole, Brooks’s story is acceptable if uninspired. As one would expect, his writing is mostly clear and, some chapters stand out above the rest……
On the whole(总体而言)=general attitude,the book对应 Brooks’s story,众位看官们,我们来瞅瞅后面是啥,acceptable,但是还有一个if…, 再看mostly,别停,咱继续找评论,some…the rest,很明显是找抽的节奏啊,你丫的骨头里挑刺呢?critical (挑剔的,批评的)这不是说你的吗?所以答案选D.

70. What is the author likely to write about after the last paragraph?
A. Problems with the book.        B. Brooks’s life experience.

 C. Death of the characters.      D. Brooks’s translation skills.
【解析】此题是想写“续集”呢,大家想想我前几次解析常用的技俩吧,“未完待续”,肯定答案得去最后一段的最后去找了呗。给大家一剂良药:写啥写的多,续集肯定是啥。
the more serious problems with The Social Animal lie eslewhere. These problems partly involve Brooks’s attempt to translate his tale into science.
我们发现,在上一题中,其实我们已经找出了作者的态度,“找碴”。注意划红线的三个地方,两个是problems,另一个是“未完待续”的信号“lie elsewhere”.都告诉你了问题不在这儿而在其他地方,而最后一段又没讲,啥时候讲?你说呢?所以答案选A.


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