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【转载】关注介词的否定意义,培养英语思维  

2017-02-10 12:10:58|  分类: 已发表文章 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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介词在英语中属于“虚词”,事实上,介词在英语中所发挥的效力并不“虚”。介词,顾名思义,就是起着媒介的作用,起着联系名词和名词,动词和名词之间的桥梁作用。出现的频率高,且功能强大。其功能之一就是,它可以和其后的宾语一起构成许多否定意义的表达方式。介词否定表达简洁明了,意义深刻,其实这也是英汉语言思维的差异的具体体现。举例如下:

1. Above

The text is above me. (无法理解)

She thinks she is above criticism. (不容批评)

His conduct has always been above suspicion. (无可置疑)

I think a gentleman like him is above doing such a thing. (不屑于)

2. Against

Almost everything was against him. (不利于)

He’s always doing his best, against all odds. (不计成败)

3. At

The point is to win at any cost. (不惜一切代价)

At any rate, we’ve done something for you now. (不管怎样)

On the spot he was completely at sea. (不知所措)

I was at a loss for what to do next. 下一步该怎么做,我完全没谱。

4. Behind

The train is running behind time. (不准时)

Your ideas are all behind the times. (跟不上时代)

5. Between

The secret is between ourselves. (不得外传)

6. Before

Before long he realized that he was wrong. (不久)

I slipped out before the lecture began. (不等)

The guerrillas (游击队员) would fight to death before they surrendered.
(决不)

7. Beneath

Lying is beneath him. (不合身分)

Such a fellow as that is beneath my notice. (不值一理)

8. Beside

What you said is quite beside the point. (不关正题)

9. Beyond

The news is beyond belief. (难以置信)

The stars are beyond number. (数不清)

The scene was beyond description. (无法形容)

Good advice is beyond price. (无价)

The facts are beyond dispute. (毋庸置疑)

My happiness was beyond words. (难以言表)

The explanation you give is beyond me. 我听不懂你的解释。
与beyond 构成的短语还有:beyond (any) doubt 无疑;beyond all praise 赞美不完;beyond
comparison 无与伦比;beyond control 无法控制;beyond expression无法表达;beyond hope 无望;beyond
question 无可争辩。

10. But

He was anything but pleased when he heard this. (才不)

11. By

What he said took me completely by surprise. (无思想准备)

Pearl Harbor was attacked by surprise and suffered a heavy loss. (出其不意)

12. For

For all I care, you can throw it away. (我才不在乎)

But for your help I would not have finished the job. (要不是)

He passed the test for a certainty. (无疑)

Even to this day we don't know what happened for sure. (无疑)

13. From

The child can’t walk, far from running. (更不用谈)

So far from taking my advice, he went and did just what I warned him
against. (不仅没有)

She kept herself from laughing. (使之不)

I knew he did it from his teeth. (毫无诚意)

14. In

I don’t know what John intends to do; I’m in the dark about his plans. (不知道)

The people lifted the big stone in a breeze. (毫不费力)

Nothing can stop us. We all decide to start our journey in all weathers. (风雨无阻)

类似的短语还有:in the clear 不再有危险;无罪的,have your head in the clouds
心不在焉;有不切实际的想法。

15. In spite of

At the sight he laughed in spite of himself. (不由自主地)

The girl still wanted to marry the poor young man in spite of her parents’ teeth. (不顾父母的反对)

16. Off

Keep off the grass. (不靠近)

I’m right off love stories for some reason. (不感兴趣)

He is off smoking now. (不再)

She was off duty yesterday. (不值班)

相似的词组还有:off color 精神不好;off guard 不警惕;off sb’s hands 不再由某人负责。

17. On

I’m sorry. You’re down on your luck. (运气不佳)

I knew you were on the cross about it. (不老实)

18. Out of

Out of sight, out of mind. (眼不见,心不烦)

It is quite out of fashion. (不时髦)

The book is out of print. (不再印发)

The man is quite out of humor. (不幽默)

还有相同的搭配:out of condition 健康状况不好;out of control 失控;out of count 不计其数;out of
date 过时 (跟不上时代);out of luck 不巧;不走运;out of place 位置不当;不得体;不适当;out of the question
不可能;不允许;不值得讨论。

19. Past

The old man is past working. (无力工作)

Those trousers are past mending. (无法修补)

The situation is past hope. (没有希望)

His poetry is past comprehension. (难以理解)

It’s past question. (毫无疑问)

20. To

To a man John’s friends stood by him in his trouble. (毫不例外)

He carried out his orders to the letter. (不折不扣)

The old man had a good memory. He remembered the past things to a hair. (细毫不差)

21. Under

I know very well you’re under thirty. (不满)

This packet of butter is under weight. (分量不足)

The boy can’t go to school because he is under age. (年龄不够)

相似搭配还有:under the weather 略有不适;不得劲

22. With

The whole project was completed with a wet finger. (毫不费力)

23. Without

It was all done without necessary permit. (未经)

You can’t do without money. (没有)

He often goes to school without his breakfast. (不吃)

I have helped him times without number. (无数)

without 后还可引导这样一些短语:without doubt 毫无疑问;without a moment’s thought 不加考虑。

 

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