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【转载】强调句型(转载) 来自: 梦想舞者(为梦想坚持奋斗)  

2017-01-31 22:47:16|  分类: 已发表文章 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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来自: 梦想舞者(为梦想坚持奋斗)https://site.douban.com/166391/widget/forum/9075175/discussion/46980051/
英语语法中的强调句型使用频率很高,高考英语也一直很注重对这方面的考查。为帮助同学们更好地掌握和运用这一句型,特将其秘诀揭示如下:牢记“一二三四五”,强调句型勿需苦。 
   
  一、 “一种结构” 
   
  强调句型的基本结构特征为:“It+be+被强调成分+that/who+其他成分”,其中it, that/who无词汇意义,it为强调词,引出强调成分;that/who只起语法连接作用。如去掉it, be和that三者,余下部分(有时要作一定语序调整)仍能组成一个句意通顺、完整的句子。 
   
  二、 “两种be”和“两个一致” 
   
  1. 两种“be” 
  be动词的选择要视原句时态具体而定:如果原句中谓语动词使用的是现在范畴的时态(一般现在时、现在进行时、现在完成时、现在完成进行时、一般将来时、将来进行时、将来完成时等),则用it is...that/who...; 如原句中谓语动词使用的是过去范畴的时态(一般过去时、过去将来时、过去完成时、过去进行时等),则用it was...that...。例如: 
  (1) It was in Beijing that Li Lei first met Han Meimei. 就是在北京,李雷第一次遇见了韩梅梅。 
  (2) It is the ability to do the job that matters not where you come from or what you are. 重要的是你的工作能力,而不是你的出身和职业。 
  温馨提示 有时be前可与表示推测的情态动词连用以构成复合结构,如It might be/must have been/can’t be... that...等。例如: 
  It must have been Tom that parked the car here, as he is the only one with a car. 一定是汤姆将车停在了这里,因为他是唯一有车的人。 
  2. 两个一致 
  即主宾格的一致性和主谓的一致性。在此结构中被强调成分作主语且为代词时,用主格,作宾语且为代词时则用宾格。如果强调成分为主语,那么that/who后的谓语动词要和它保持人称和数的一致。对由rather than, not...but, not only...but also, as well as等连接的平行、对比结构,更需谨慎。例如: 
  (1) It is I who am to blame. 是我该受到责怪。 
  (2) It was me that/whom she helped yesterday. 昨天她帮助的人是我。 
  (3) It’s you, rather than he, that are to blame. 是你而不是他应受责备。 
  (4) It is not help but obstacles that make a man.使人成才的不是助力,而是阻力。 
  温馨提示 在口语或非正式文体中,强调成分作主语时也可用宾格。例如: 
  It wasn’t me that/who invited them.不是我邀请他们的。 
   
  三、 “三个连接词”和“三类强调成分” 
   
  三个连接词即that,who,whom。当被强调成分为人时可用who或 that连接;当被强调成分为物或既有人又有物时只用that连接;强调成分为人且作宾语时用whom。注意:在口语中that/who有时可省略。特别注意的是:强调物时不能用which连接;强调时间、地点、原因等也不可用when, where, why代替that。例如: 
  (1) I think it was George (who/that) said it. 我认为是乔治说的。 
  (2) It was with Mary whom Philip first came in contact.菲力普第一次联系的人是玛丽。 
  (3) It was beneath our feet that the earth lies that our life depends on for food and clothing. 就在我们的脚下有我们赖以生存的地球。 
  该句型所强调的成分可以是单词、短语、从句(主语从句、宾语从句、状语从句等);从语法上看可强调主语、宾语、状语、同位语、非谓语动词、with复合结构,但不强调谓语、be后的表语及让步、比较状语从句。应注意:强调原因状语从句时需用because引导,而不用since/as。例如: 
  (1) It was green that they painted all the walls. 他们把墙漆成了绿色。(强调成分为宾语补足语green) 
  (2) It was the King of Pop, Michael Jackson that died on June 25, 2009 in Los Angeles. 流行天王迈克尔?杰克逊于2009年6月25日在洛杉矶去世。(被强调成分有同位语时,同位语也一并提前) 
  (3) It was to develop creative thinking that I took the course, not to get high marks in the examinations. 我是为了培养创造性思维而选择这门课的,而不是为了在考试中拿高分。(被强调部分是不定式,在句中作目的状语) 
  (4) It is only when losing something that you will realize how much you value it. 只有当你失去某种东西时,你才会意识到你多么珍惜它。(该句不是考查倒装,是强调时间状语从句,其后依然需用that) 
  (5) It was because he would get the chance to travel that he wanted to work as a tour guide. 正因为常有旅游的机会,他才想做一名导游。(强调成分为原因状语从句) 
   
  四、 “四种句式变化” 
   
  即一般疑问和反意疑问形式、特殊疑问形式、感叹句形式、省略句形式。 
  1. 一般疑问和反意疑问形式 
  Was it on 21st August 2008 that Liu Xiang lost in running for IOC members?刘翔是在2008年8月21日,竞选国际奥委会成员资格时失利的吗? 
  强调句型的一般疑问形式为:Is/Was it...that...?或Could/Can it be...that...?肯定回答为:Yes, it is/was;否定回答为:No,it isn’t/wasn’t. 
  It is in Shanghai that the 2010 World EXPO will be held, isn’t it? 2010年世博会将在上海举办,不是吗? 
  强调句型反意疑问句中,其问句主语应与强调句型中强调引导词it保持一致,并遵守“前肯定,后否定”原则。 
  2. 特殊疑问形式 
  —How was it that you got to know she traveled to USA? 
 —Oh, through one of her colleagues. 
  ——你是怎么知道她去美国的? 
  ——听她的一位同事说的。 
  强调句型的特殊疑问句,即疑问词为强调内容,句式为:疑问词+is/was it that...? 
  3. 感叹句形式 
  What a beautiful picture it is (that) you have drawn! 你画了多漂亮的一幅画呀! 
  强调句型感叹句形式为:What/How... it is/was(that)+主语+谓语! 
  4. 省略句形式 
  —Who is making so much noise in the garden? 
  —It is the children. 
  ——谁在花园里发出这么大的声音? 
  ——孩子们。 
  回答为强调句型在具体语境中的省略,其完整形式应是:It is the children who/that are making so much noise in the garden. 不能用They are代替It is。 
五、“五类复杂化结构” 
   
  即强调句型与宾语从句、主语从句、同位语从句、定语从句和时间状语从句(not...until...)等相结合,加大了句子结构复杂程度和句意理解难度,更是运用中的难点。 
  1. 与宾语从句结合 
  (1) David said that it was because of his strong interest in literature that he chose the course. 戴维说他选择这门课程是因为他对文学有着浓厚兴趣。(强调句式作said的宾语从句,其中强调成分为原因状语) 
  (2) I still remember how many years ago it was that I met her in Mount Huang. 我依然记得很多年前我在黄山见到了她。(remember后的宾语从句为强调句型的特殊疑问句,语序应用陈述语序) 
  2. 与主语从句结合 
  (1) It’s that he often fails in exams that make his parents worried about him. 他常常考试失利,这使他的父母很为他着急。(强调成分为that 引导的主语从句) 
  (2) It is not whether you succeed or not, but rather whether you’ll try or not that matters.重要的不是你能否成功,而是你是否尝试过。(whether引导的主语从句为所强调的成分,且又是个并列句) 
  温馨提示 此时要注意与it作形式主语的句式“It+be+adj./n./p.p+that...”的区别: 
  It is decided that the meeting has been put off till next Monday. 会议决定延迟到下周一。 
  该句中it为形式主语,that引导的主语从句是真正的主语从句,不能误作强调句型。除了从意思上进行区分外,还应根据强调句型的结构特点来进行判断。 
  3. 与同位语从句结合 
  (1) It was at the very beginning of the conference that President Obama made the decision that more measures should be taken to prevent American economic from getting worse. 会议一开始奥巴马总统就做出这样的决定:应该采取更多的措施以防止美国经济进一步恶化。(强调句式中连接词that后有一个同位语从句,对decision作解释说明。第二个that引导同位语从句) 
  (2) It was the belief that the cross-straits will be united in time that made him decide to go back to the motherland. 是这份信念——海峡两岸将会最终统一,使他决定回到祖国大陆。(第一个that引导同位语从句;第二个that为强调句型连接词) 
  温馨提示 下列句式不是强调句型: 
  (1) There is no possibility that Bob can win the first prize in the match.Bob没有可能赢得比赛一等奖。(本句为there be 句型而非强调句型;that引导的从句为同位语从句,作possibility 的同位语) 
  (2) There is some doubt whether John will come on time. 约翰能否准时来值得怀疑。(本句用whether引导同位语从句,解释doubt的具体内容;doubt如在否定句中要用that引导) 
  4. 与定语从句结合 
  Is it the school where you once studied for two years that will be rebuilt with the help of the Project Hope? 你曾经读过两年书的那所学校将在希望工程的帮助下重建吗?(关系副词where引导的定语从句修饰强调成分the school,where在定语从句中作地点状语) 
  —When did you get to know her? 
  —It was in 2008 when we were working as volunteers for Beijing Olympics. 
  ——你是什么时候认识她的? 
  ——是2008年我们为北京奥运会做志愿者的时候。 
  (when引导的为定语从句,修饰限制强调成分in 2008,其后省略了that I got to know her。如把when去掉,则很容易把前面当成是强调句式,误选that) 
  It was more the way he said it than what he said that made her depressed.使她很沮丧的与其说是他说话的内容倒不如说是他说话的方式。(本句强调主语more the way he said it than what he said,它既含有定语从句又含有主语从句。同时还应注意more...than结构) 
  温馨提示 此时要区别于It’s time that...和“It is/was +次数+that...has/had done... ”句型。前一句型中that引导的是一个定语从句。后一句型中主句谓语动词用is时,从句谓语动词需用现在完成时;主句谓语动词用was时,定语从句中谓语动词需用过去完成时。而它们不是强调句型。 
  (1) It’s high time that you went to bed. 是你睡觉的时候了。 
  (2) It is/was the first time that I have/had come to visit the city.这是我第一次来参观这个城市。   5. 与时间状语从句not...until...结合 www.ryedu.net 
  强调句型常和(not)until 句型结合,句式特征为: 
  It is/was +until ...+延续性动词; 
  It is/was+not until...+短暂性动词。 
  如强调not until后的时间状语,not until要一并放be后,这也是否定转移的一种形式。如: 
  (1) It was until he retired last year that he worked as an English teacher at a middle school. 直到去年退休,他一直在中学教英语。 
  (2) It was not until he came back from Africa that year that he met the girl he would like to marry.直到他从非洲回来的那年,他才遇到了他的心上人。 
  温馨提示 在和时间状语从句连用时应和以下句式区别开,以下句式的连接词不能用that。 
  (1) “It be+时段+since...”句型 
  如since和延续性动词连用则意为“某人不做某事已有多久”(行为的终止);和短暂性动词连用则表示“某人做某事已有多久”(行为动作的开始)。例如: 
  It’s 2 years since he smoked. 他戒烟有2年了。 
  (2) “It be +时间+when...”句型 
  when引导的为时间状语从句,表“某事发生时正是……时候”。注意时间词语前无介词,主从句时态一般是一致的。 
  ① It was midnight when he got home yesterday. 昨天他到家的时候已是半夜。(when引导的为时间状语从句,it为代词,指时间) 
  ② It was at midnight that he got home yesterday. 他昨天是半夜到家的. (本句为强调句,强调at midnight,去掉It was和that后句子结构仍完整) 
  (3) “It was/will (not)+时段+before...”句型 
  肯定句表“过了……之后某事才发生”;否定句表示“不久就……”。 
  ① It was some time before we realized the truth. 好久之后我们才了解到真相。 
  ② It won’t be long before we know the result of the experiment. 不久我们就会知道试验的结果。
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