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引用 【转载】whatever,whoever,whichever,whenever,wherever, however用法归纳   

2014-10-22 19:55:15|  分类: 高考英语研究 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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一、引导状语从句

它们都可用来引导状语从句(让步状语从句),其大意为“无论什么(是谁、哪一个、什么时候、什么地方、如何)”等,相当于英语中的 no matter what (who, which, when, where, how)。如:

Whatever [No matter what] you say, I believe you.

无论你说什么,我都相信你。

Whoever [No matter who] telephones, tell them I’m out.

不管是谁打电话,都说我出去了。

Whichever [No matter which] day you come, I’ll be pleasedto see you.

无论你哪天来,我都欢迎。

Whenever [No matter when] you come, you are welcome.

你什么时候来,我们都欢迎。

We found the people friendly wherever [no matter where] we went.

无论我们走到哪里,我们都发现人们很友好。

However [No matter how] much he eats, he never gets fat.

无论他吃多少,他都不发胖。

注:有时从句谓语可用情态动词:

无论他在哪里,我都要找到他。

正:I’ll find him, wherever he is.

正:I’ll find him, wherever he may be.

无论发生什么事都要保持冷静。

正:Keep calm, whatever happens.

正:Keep calm, whatever may happen

另外,whoever 的宾格也是 whoever, 而不是 whomever, 后者在现代英语已基本不用,有的词典已不收录此词。如:

Whoever you marry, make sure he can cook.

不管你跟谁结婚,他一定要会做饭才行。

二、引导名词性从句

除引导状语从句外,whatever, whoever, whichever等还可引导名词性从句(主语从句或宾语从句)。如:

He does whatever she asks him to do.

她要他做什么,他就做什么。

I will just say whatever comes into my mind.

我想到什么就说什么。

Whoever breaks the rules will be punished.

谁违反这些规则都将受到处罚。

I’ll give the ticket to whoever wants it.

请想要这票,我就把它给谁。

Whichever team gains the most points wins.

 哪个队得分最多,哪个队就赢。

Whichever of us gets home first starts cooking.

我们当中无论哪个先到家,哪个就先开始做饭。

三、用于加强语气

有时用于加强语气,含有“究竟”、“到底”之义。如:

Whatever [What ever] do you mean?

你到底是什么意思?

Whenever [When ever] did you find time to do it?

你什么时候有空做这事?

Wherever [Where ever] can the children be?

孩子们究竟会在哪里呢?

Whoever [Who ever] told you that?

到底是谁告诉你的呢?

Whichever [Which ever] did you choose?

你到底选了哪个?

However [How ever] did you escape?

你到底是怎样逃出来的?

 

“ No matter+ 疑问词”与“疑问词+ ever ”用法透析

1. “ No matter +疑问词”意为“无论……”、“不论……”,用来引导让步状语从句。如:

no matter who / whom (无论谁),

no matter what (无论什么),

no matter which (无论哪一个),

no matter how (无论怎样)等。如:

You are always welcome no matter where you are.

无论在何地,您总是会受到欢迎的。

No matter what may happen, they've decided to leave this evening.

不管发生什么事,他们已决定今晚离开。

No matter who you may be, you have no right to do such a thing.

不论你是谁,你都无权做这样的事。

No matter when my motherland needs me, I will go without hesitation.

无论什么时候,只要祖国需要我,我都会毫不犹豫地出发。

No matter how hard it may be, I will carry it out.

无论此事有多难,我都会去做。

2. “疑问词+ ever ”相当于“ no matter + 疑问词”, ever 本是一个加强语气的词,加在疑问词后面作后缀,不仅使疑问词的语气加强,而且变为具有让步意义的一个复合词,可用于引导让步状语从句。例如:

Whoever ( No matter who ) breaks the law, he should be punished.

无论谁违反法律,都应该受到惩罚。

Whatever you do, you must do it well.

不管做什么事,你都要做好。

Whatever problem you have, turn to me.

不管你有什么问题,都可以找我帮忙。

She is willing to help you, however busy she is.

无论多忙,她都愿意帮助你。

Wherever he is, he will be thinking of you.

无论在哪儿,他都会想着你。

3. 虽然“ no matter +疑问词”和“疑问词+ ever ”都可以用来引导让步状语从句,但后者的用途更广,这类词( whoever, whatever, whichever, whenever, wherever 等)还可用来引导主语从句、宾语从句、时间或地点状语从句等。例如:

Whoever comes to the party will receive a gift.

(主语从句)来参加晚会的人都会收到一份礼物。

比较: Whoever comes to the party, he will receive a gift.

(让步状语从句)= No matter who comes to the party, he will receive a gift.

无论谁来参加晚会,都会收到一份礼物。

You can take whichever book you like best.

(宾语从句)你可以拿走你喜欢的任何一本书。

Whenever we see him, we speak to him.

(时间状语从句)每当我们见到他时,我们都跟他说话。

一、注意从句的时态

由no matter what/who/where/when…引导的从句往往用一般现在时或一般过去时。如:No matter who you are, you must obey the rules. 无论你是谁,都应该遵守规则。

二、注意被修饰的名词、形容词以及副词的位置

no matter what/whose/which修饰名词时,该名词必须紧跟其后;

no matter how修饰形容词或副词时,该形容词或副词也必须紧跟其后。如:

No matter how hard he works, he find it difficult to make ends meet.

无论他多么努力工作,却总是入不敷出。

三、注意“no matter+疑问词”结构与“疑问词+ever”在用法上的区别

1. “no matter+疑问词”结构只能引导让步状语从句,这时可以和“疑问词+ever”互换。如:

No matter where he may be

(=Wherever he may be), he will be happy.

他无论在什么地方都快乐。

2. 而“疑问词+ever”还可以引导名词性从句。如:

Give this book to whoever likes it.

谁喜欢这本书就给谁吧。

(这里不能用no matter who。)

3. whoever既可引导名词性从句,又有在从句中作主语、宾语、表语等;

whomever也可引导名词性从句,但只能在从句中作宾语。如:

You may invite whomever you like.

4. whatever表示“无论什么”,没有一定的范围限制;

whichever表示“无论哪一个、无论哪些”,其后可接一个名词。如:

Eat whichever cake you like.

 

 

 

however用法详解

一、考点描述

however是高考英语中一个十分重要的考点,近几年来每年的各省考题均有所涉及。请看两道典型高考真题:

1. You should try to get a good night’s sleep _____ much work you have to do.

A. however           B. no matter          C. although            D. whatever

【分析】答案选A。however作连接副词时,与no matter how相当,后接形容词或副词,意为“无论……”“不管……”。句意是:不管你有多少工作要做,你都应该好好休息一个晚上。

2. He tried his best to solve the problem, _____ difficult it was.

A. however           B. no matter           C. whatever           D. although

【分析】答案选A。因difficult是形容词,修饰形容词要用连接副词however(无论如何,不管多么),引导一个让步状语从句。

 

二、用法详解

不管however以何种形式出现在高考题中,它都不外乎以下两种用法。

1. 用作副词

(1) 表示让步:意为“无论如何”“不管怎样”,用来修饰形容词或副词,其词序为:however+形容词或副词+主语+谓语。这样用的however其实具有连词的功能,用以引导让步状语从句。如:

Phone me when you arrive, however late it is. 你到达之后就给我打电话,不论多么晚也要打。

however much he eats, he never gets fat. 不管他吃多少,他永远吃不胖。

however cold it is, he always goes swimming. 不管天有多冷,他都去游泳。

You won’t move the stone, however strong you are. 不管你力气有多大,也休想搬动那块石头。

however far it is, l intend to drive there tonight 不管有多远,我今晚也要开车到那儿去。

用于此用法时,请注意以下几点:

①此用法属however所有用法中最重要的考点,同学们务请引起高度重视。

②这样用的 however与 no matter how 大致同义。如:

People always want more, however [no matter how] rich they are. 人总是富了还想再富。

however [No matter how] hard I worked, she was never satisfied. 无论我多么努力地工作,她从来没满意过。

③有时从句谓语可用情态动词。如:

Don’t laugh, however funny it may be. 无论多么有趣也不要笑。

I’ll try to finish it in time, however hard it may be. 无论多么难,我也要按时完成。

④“however+形容词或副词+主语+谓语”有时可以有所省略。如:

I refuse, however favorable the conditions. 不管条件如何有利,我都不干。(conditions后省去了are)

I’d rather have a room of my own, however small (it is), than share a room. 无论房间多么小,我宁愿一个人住一间,而不愿意与别人合住一个房间。

A grammar rule, however true (it is), is useless unless it can be understood. 一条语法规则,不管如何正确,除非能懂,否则毫无用处。

(2) 表示转折:尤其用于谈及一个既成事实时,表示转折,其意为“可是”“仍然”等。可放在句首、句中或句末,通常用逗号与句子其他成分隔开。如:

My father, however, did not agree. 但是,我父亲不同意。

My room is small; however, it’s comfortable. 我的房间很小,但却很舒服。

He said that it was so; he was mistaken, however. 他说情况如此,可是他错了。

注:however不能像 but(但是)那样直接连接两个句子(注意正句中的标点符号)。如:

我们都已尽了最大的努力,不过我们还是输了。

误:We all tried our best, however we lost the game.

正:We all tried our best, but we lost the game.

正:We all tried our best; however, we lost the game.

正:We all tried our best. however, we lost the game.

(3) 表示惊奇或强调:相当于how ever的用法,其意为“究竟怎样,到底以什么方式”。如:

however did you get here without a car? 没有汽车你究竟是怎样来的呢?

however does he manage to write music when he is so deaf? 他聋成这个样子,究竟是怎样从事作曲的呢?

2. 用作连词

用作连词,引导方式状语从句,表示“无论以何种方式”“不管怎样”。如:

however it may be, I shall take your word. 无论如何,我将会相信你的话。

however I approached the problem, I couldn’t find a solution. 这一问题我不管怎样都无法解决。

however you travel, it’ll take you at least two days. 无论你怎么个走法,至少要两天时间。

The painting looks wrong however you look at it. 这张画不论怎么看都显得不对劲。

 

三、命题切入点

高考以however切入命题的可能性主要有两个方面:

1. 直接考查however的用法。如考查其句型结构(尤其是词序),考查它与其他相似词语whatever, whenever, wherever, whichever, whoever等在用法和意义上的区别。如:

(1) _____ rich one may be there is always something one wants.

A. whatever         B. Whenever          C. however    D. Wherever

【分析】答案选C。however 用于修饰形容词rich,在意义上相当于no matter how。

(2) We should report any incident, _____.

A. however serious or minor it is  B. how serious or minor is it

C. it is how serious or minor      D. it is however  serious or minor

【分析】答案选A。however 引导让步状语从句时的语序为“however+形容词或副词+主语+谓语”。

(3) _____ I say, he always disagrees.

A. however    B. whatever     C. Whichever      D. Whoever

【分析】答案选B。whatever 在此用作动词say的宾语,在意义上相当于 no matter what。

(4) _____ she goes, there are crowds of people waiting to see her.

A. Wherever    B. however  C. Whichever    D. Whoever

【分析】答案选A。根据句意可知,说话者强调的是地点,故用wherever。

2. 用however作为干扰项进行考查。如:

An awful accident _____, however occur the other day.

A. does      B. did         C. has to       D. had to

【分析】此题正确答案应选B,句末的 the other day 意为“前几天”,所以句子应用过去时态,而选项D不合题意,故选B。此句有两个难点:一是句中插有 however 一词,分散了同学们的注意力;二是所填选项B为许多同学所不熟悉的强调用法。

 whatever, whoever, whichever引导名词性从句

1. whatever引导的名词性从句
Whatever
的意思是的一切事或东西,可视为what的强调说法,其含义大致相当于anything thatwhatever在从句中可用作主语、宾语、定语:
Whatever he did was right. 
无论他做什么都是对的。
Give them whatever they desire. 
他们想要什么就给他们什么。
I will just say whatever comes into my mind. 
我想到什么就说什么。
Goats eat whatever (food) they can find. 
山羊找到什么(食物)就吃什么(食物)
I’m going to learn whatever my tutor wishes. 
我将学习任何我的导师愿意我学的东西。
He does whatever she asks him to do. 
她要他做什么,他就做什么。
Talk to me about whatever is troubling you. 
给我谈谈任何使你烦恼的事。
One should stick to whatever one has begun. 
开始了的事就要坚持下去。
She would tell him whatever news she got. 
她得到的任何消息都会告诉他。
You can have whatever allowance you like. 
你想要多少津贴就给你多少津贴。
2. whoever
引导的名词性从句
whoever
的意思任何的人,在意义上大致相当于 anybody whowhoever在从句中可用作主语或宾语:
I’ll take whoever wants to go. 
谁想去我就带谁去。
She can marry whoever she chooses. 
她愿意嫁谁就嫁谁。
Whoever wants the book may have it. 
任何人要这书都可拿去。
Whoever comes will be welcome. 
谁来都欢迎。
Whoever you invite will be welcome. 
任何你邀请的人都欢迎。
Whoever breaks this law deserves a fine. 
违反本法者应予以罚款。
I’ll give the ticket to whoever wants it. 
请想要这票,我就把它给谁。
【注意】

(1) whoever
既用作主格也用作宾语(作宾语时不宜用whomever,因为在现代英语中whomever已几乎不用)
(2) 
注意以下受汉语意思影响而弄错的句子:
误:
Who wins can get a prize. / Anyone wins can get a prize. 
正:Whoever wins can get a prize. / Anyone who wins can a prize.

 





2014年06月03日 - sanfecathy - 2014中高考英语园地

 


 

 

经典考题

      1. You should try to get a good night’s sleep _____ much work you have to do.

A. however           B. no matter          C. although            D. whatever

2. He tried his best to solve the problem, _____ difficult it was.

A. however           B. no matter           C. whatever           D. although

3. _____ I say, he always disagrees.

A. however    B. whatever     C. Whichever      D. Whoever

4._____ she goes, there are crowds of people waiting to see her.

A. Wherever    B. however  C. Whichever    D. Whoever

5.                     you do , don't miss this exhibition , for it's so hard for me to get the ticket.

   A. Whatever   B. However   C. Whenever   D. Whether

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

keys :

1. A 2. A 3. B 4.A  5. A

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