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【转载】探究学案教学在高中英语阅读课中的运用---3E论坛第十九讲  

2014-11-01 15:27:20|  分类: 已发表文章 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

【编者按】“3E论坛”中的“3E”为“Efficient, Effective, Economical”。倡导高中英语教学“高效率、高效果、经济实用”。 第十九讲由市特级带徒老师姜山中学陈幸佩主讲。此文被评为宁波市年度论文二等奖。

 

一、开展学案教学的背景

新课程标准要求以学生的发展为本,尊重学生,关注学生,全面发展学生的个性,培养具有创新精神和实践能力的人,而为了实现这一目标,就需要进行课堂教学方式的改革。2009和2010年学年,笔者所在的学校组织部分英语教师赴山东杜郎口,昌乐二中等开展学案教学比较成熟的地区和学校进行观摩,学习他们的学案教学模式。在学习的过程中,笔者认为学案教学做到了以学生为中心,把学生放在教学设计的首要位置,充分考虑学生的个体差异,采用小组合作,讨论、展示等丰富的活动途径和多变的活动形式,让每一个学生都参与其中,这些都与《英语课程标准》的理念不谋而合,真正体现了“生本”教学的课标精髓。

二、英语阅读课中学案的设计与使用

学案教学是学生依照教师所提供的学习提纲即“学案”进行的自主学习活动。笔者所尝试的学案教学模式包括以下6个环节:学习目标、自学导航、上课流程、课堂检测、课后拓展、教(学)后记。以人教版必修1 第一单元“友谊”的阅读课学案为例:

1.1 Friendship(第一稿)

课型:阅读      主备人:陈幸佩    审核人:            搜索编码:GYYY1001

班级:          姓  名:          组  名:            家长签名:            

★学习目标

1. 帮助学生掌握一些重要的单词和词汇,如:upset; ignore;clam;concern;loose;German;series;outdoors;dusk;thunder;entirely;power;curtain;dusty;add up;calm down;have got to;be concerned about;walk the dog;go through;set down;a series of;on purpose;face to face

2. 使学生了解安妮的生活背景,并懂得如何交朋友,与朋友相处。

3. 训练学生的略读,精读,寻找细节等各种阅读能力。

★自学导航

1. 必记单词和短语




 

1)          adj. 心烦意乱的; vt. 使不安

2)             vt. 不理睬;忽视

3)     vt.& n. 使担忧;涉及;n. 担心;关注

4)              vt. & vi, 使平静;adj. 平静的

5)                  adj. 松开的

6)                 adv. 在户外; 在野外

7)                  adj. 整个的;完的

8)                  adj. 挤满灰尘的

9)                  adv. 完全地;整个地

10)              n. 能力;能量;权力

11)  合计             

12)  平静下来;镇定下来                     

13)  关心; 挂念、             

14)  遛狗                  

15)  经历;经受                 

16)  放下;记下              

17)  一连串的;一系列的;一套              

18)  故意的                  

19)  在黄昏时刻                

20)  面对面地                 



 

2. 欣赏有关友谊的名言并给出中文解释:

1. True friendship is like sound health; the value of it is seldom known until it is lost.

                                                                                

2. A real friend is one who walks in when the rest of the world walks out.

                                                                               

3. Don't walk in front of me, I may not follow. Don't walk behind me, I may not lead. Walk beside me and be my friend.

                                                                               

3. 完成课文Page 1 上面的调查问卷并查看自己的得分情况。

4-7points: You are not a good friend. You either ignore your friend’s needs or just do what he/she wants you to do. You should think about what a good friend needs to do. Think more about this.

8-12 points: You are a good friend but you sometimes let your friendship become too important, or you fail to show enough concern for your friend’s needs and feelings. Try to strike a balance between your friend’s needs and your own responsibilities.

13+ points: You are an excellent friend who recognizes that to be a good friend you need to balance your needs and those of your friends. Well done!

★上课流程

1. Warming up

① Greetings       ② Introduce background information about the character

2. Pre-reading

What qualities(品质) should a good friend have ?                                   

3. Reading

①Skimming

Read the first part of the reading section and answer the following two questions:

Who was Anne’s best friend?                                                     

When did the story happen?                                                      

②Scanning

1. Read the text quickly and fill in the form below

The time of the story

 

The place of the story

 

The heroine of the story

 

Anne’s best friend

 

The length of time they hid away

 

The date of the diary

 

2. Matching

⑴. Anne kept a diary because              A. She couldn’t meet her friends.

⑵. She felt very lonely because            B. Jews were caught by Nazis and put away

⑶.They have to hide because              C. She could tell everything to it.

⑷Anne named her diary Kitty because      D. she thought it was her best friend.

3. Choose the correct answers

⑴.Anne Frank and her family hid away for___       

A. over a year      B. over two years       C. three years     D. one year and a half

⑵. According to Anne, a true friend is a person___      

A. that would laugh at you                  B. who makes you happy

C. whom you can trust                     D. who could save your life

⑶. She didn’t dare open the window when the moon was bright .That’s because___    

A. they might be discovered                 B. her family might be disturbed

C. it was very cold                        D. a thief might get into the room

⑷. Anne and her family were caught by German Nazis___        

A. about June 1945                       B. about February 1945

C. about December 1944                   D. about November 1944

4. Post-reading

Work in pairs to discuss the following open questions.

Q1-How did Anne feel about nature before she and her family hide away? (after)

                                                                                  

Q2-Why do you think her feelings changed towards nature?

                                                                              

Q3-Why did Anne no longer just look at nature out of the window?

                                                                                

★课堂检测

Fill in the blanks with the words and expressions from the text.

I lived in ___________in the ______________ during _____________. My family were ______, so we had to ___________ for a year and a half in order ________________ by the German Nazis. During that time I wasn’t able to go ________ for so long that I had _______ about everything to _____   nature. Once, I decided to look at the moon ___________ by myself. But I didn’t _______ open the window to see the night ___________ because I was afraid of being discovered by the Nazis. I felt very _______ without seeing my old friends. So I had to make a new friend --_____________, whom I could tell _________ to. Sadly, at last my family was discovered and caught by _______________ sometime later.

★课后拓展

Read the following passage and then translate the underlined proverb into Chinese.

Fortune-teller can make accurate predictions of a person by looking at the way he does things, but ordinary people can also tell what a man is by the friends he makes with. We all know that “birds of a feather flock together”, therefore, if you want to know about a person, just take a look at his friends, and everything about that person will be unclosed. It’s the same as an author can be known by the book he writes. So if you want to make a sound judgment of a person, just notice whom he is going out with and working together with. You won’t make a mistake in your judgment.

                                                                              

★教(学)后记

                                                                            

在使用该学案上课之前,笔者在自己所任教的高一(1)、(2)两个班里进行了一次问卷调查。此次问卷调查共发放问卷112份,回收有效问卷112份。问卷的内容设计紧扣学案的各个环节,以下为问卷调查的内容和调查结果统计:

1.      在看到英语课文阅读材料时,你能分清阅读材料的学习重点和难点吗?

A完全能看懂         B基本能看懂         C部分能看懂        D看不懂

2.      你认为英语阅读文章的课前预习,对课堂上的新课学习有帮助吗?

A有较大帮助         B有一些帮助       C基本没帮助     D预不预习一个样

3.      在预习英语阅读文章时,你采取的方式是________.

A只看书    B边看书边做一些练习     C只做练习不看书    D基本不预习

4.      你认为阅读课上怎样的学习方式有利于学好英语。

A自主学习,老师辅导   B完全听老师讲    C老师少讲,自己自学   D分组讨论

5.      你在上英语阅读课前对本堂课老师上课的具体流程和环节了解吗?

A 非常清楚             B大概了解         C无所谓           D不清楚

6.      你认为老师在讲解课文内容时_________.

A讲得多,讲得透                       

B 少讲一些,多一些时间让自己思考 

C 先自己思考,不懂的地方再由老师讲解 

D 最好老师不讲,不懂的地方同学讨论解决

7.      在上英语阅读课时,老师布置一些口头检测的练习,你认为对加深课文内容的理解有帮助吗?

A 非常有帮助    B只说不写,印象不深     C帮助不大       D没有帮助

8.      你在学完英语阅读文章后还会花时间去学习一些与课文主题相关的课外知识吗?

A 会             B 有时候会            C 想做但没有时间       D 不会

9.      你在上完每一堂阅读课后,会进行课后反思吗?

A 会             B 有时候会            C 想做但没有时间       D 不会

10.  你在上完阅读课后,会整理你的笔记吗?

A 每堂课后都整理     B 有时候会      C基本不整理    D 没有记笔记的习惯

调查数据统计:

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

A

0%

18%

39%

52%

2%

54%

34%

3%

3%

9%

B

32%

52%

29%

22%

34%

9%

39%

17%

31%

45%

C

52%

20%

3%

3%

14%

34%

19%

36%

27%

31%

D

16%

10%

29%

23%

50%

3%

8%

44%

39%

15%

通过以上数据不难发现:

1. 68%的同学不清楚所要学习的阅读课文的学习目标。

2. 70%的同学认为预习对学习课文内容是有帮助的,但又不能做到及时的预习。

3. 52%的同学希望采取自主学习,老师辅导的方式,而50%的同学则不清楚老师上课的具体流程和上课环节。

4. 在“课堂检测”这一环节,58%的同学认为口头检测的练习效果不明显,甚至于8%的同学认为没有任何效果。

5. 而在“课后拓展”这个环节,只有3%的同学会课后花时间去学一些与课文内容相关的课外知识,80%的同学不会或没有时间去学。

6. 66%的同学不会或没有时间进行课后反思,只有9%的同学会在每堂课后整理笔记。

以上种种都表明进行课堂教学改革的迫切性,于是笔者尝试用学案进行英语阅读课的教学,并在课后与学生交流其使用学案学习之后的感受,发现了以下两点困惑:

首先、学案教学对老师和学生提出了更高的要求。对老师而言,备学生不再是一个口号,而是要认真研究,事先估计课堂上可能出现的问题,这样势必要花费大量的时间和精力在备课上;对学生而言,在上课之前也要花一定量的时间和精力来预习。学生通过预习,对即将要学的新知识有了一个总体的把握,在预习中有了自己困惑的问题,经过预习这一环节,他们自己就提前找出了阅读文章的重难点,这样,上课的时候,对这部分重点听,对重难点的突破很有帮助。反之,如果事先课前没有做好这些工作的话,那么上课效果会大打折扣,小组学习和讨论的时候就会处于被动的地位,学习效率自然就不会高了。

其次、根据笔者所设计的学案,学生们认为上课的时候既要听老师讲解,又要自己独立完成学案,还要参与到小组的讨论中去,在这几重任务的夹击之下,大部分同学都手忙脚乱,不是忘记填写学案,就是讨论的时候插不上话,又或者是上课的时候有部分时间没有在听老师或同学讲解,只顾埋头做自己的学案。

通过与学生的及时交流以及首次尝试运用学案上阅读课后的一些反思,笔者发现了一些问题,觉得有必要对阅读课学案做出改进。于是笔者对原有的阅读课学案进行了修改,同样以人教版必修1 第一单元“友谊”的阅读课学案为例,以下是修改后的第二稿学案:

1.1 Friendship(第二稿)

课 型:阅读    主备人:陈幸佩     审核人:           搜索编码 GYYY1001      

班 级:                 姓  名:                     学 号:                  

★学习目标

1.学生通过课文阅读熟悉文中出现的一些重要单词和词汇,如:upset;ignore;clam;concern;loose;series;outdoors;dusk thunder;entirely;power;curtain;dusty;add up;calm down; be concerned about;walk the dog;go through;set down;a series of;on purpose;face to face

2. 学生了解安妮的生活背景,并懂得如何交朋友,与朋友相处。

3. 训练学生的略读,精读,寻找细节等各种阅读能力。

★自学导航

 欣赏有关友谊的名言并给出中文解释

1). A life without a friend is a life without a sun.

                                                                              

2). A friend that you buy with presents will be bought from you.

                                                                               

3). A brother may not be a friend, but a friend will always be a brother.

                                                                                

4). Friendship is the golden thread that ties the hearts of all the world.

                                                                                

2. 完成课文Page1上面的调查问卷并查看自己的得分情况

4-7points:  You are not a good friend. You either ignore your friend’s needs or just do what he/she wants you to do. You should think about what a good friend needs to do. Think more about this.

8-12 points: You are a good friend but you sometimes let your friendship become too important, or you fail to show enough concern for your friend’s needs and feelings. Try to strike a balance between your friend’s needs and your own responsibilities.

13+ points: You are an excellent friend who recognizes that to be a good friend you need to balance your needs and those of your friends. Well done!

★上课流程

1. Warming up

① Greetings   ② brainstorm: What qualities (品质) should a good friend have?

2. Pre-reading

① character and background introduction     ② look at the picture and guess

3. Reading

① Fast reading

Read the first part of the reading section and answer these two questions:

Q1-Who was Anne’s best friend?          Q2-When did the story happen? 

② Careful reading

1). Read the text quickly and fill in the form.

2). Choose the correct answers

3). What is an ordinary diary like according to Anne? What about her diary?

                                                                                 

4. Post-reading

① Work in pairs to discuss the following open questions.

Q1-How did Anne feel about nature before she and her family hide away? (after)

                                                                                  

Q2-Why do you think her feelings changed towards nature?

                                                                              

Q3-Why did Anne no longer just look at nature out of the window?

                                                                               

② Discussion:Four students a group to discuss the following question:

What is a true friend?

                                                                       

★课堂检测

Fill in the blanks with the words and expressions from the text.

Anne was a little girl living in the Netherlands with her family. Because they were Jews,  they had to h_______ _______ everywhere or they would be c______ by the German Nazis. During that time she couldn’t go o________ for so long that she had been c_________ about everything to d____ _____ nature. Once, in order to look at the moon f____ ___ ____ by herself, she stay a________ on p__________. But she didn’t d____ open the window because the moon gave too much light and she was afraid of being discovered by the Nazis. she felt very l_______ without seeing her old friends. So she had to make a new friend –her d______, whom she could tell everything to. She didn’t want to s_____ ____ a series of facts but her deepest f_______. Sadly, at last her family was discovered and caught by the G________ Nazis sometime later.

★课后拓展

Read the following passage and choose the best answers.

Let’s Celebrate Friendship Day

August 6th is International Friendship Day. It’s time to recognize your friends and what they have done in your life. Friendship helps to bring peace and happiness to the world!

Friendship Day is only once a year, so make the most of it! Friends come in many shapes and sizes: school friends, work colleagues, brothers or sisters, parents, pets and neighbors.

Need some ideas on how to celebrate Friendship Day and show your friends that they are special? Read on for some ideas…

l      Write a nice card for your friends, telling them how much you appreciate their friendship. Speak some words from your heart.

l      Buy or make them a small present--- flowers, a cake, or anything that you can think of!

l      Make a call to every friend on Friendship Day to let them know you care for them.

l      Make your friend a tape or a CD of all the songs that describe your friendship.

l      Call those old friends you haven’t spoken to for many years. Remember the saying, “Make new friends but keep the old; one is silver and the other is gold.”

l      Make a special friendship book for your best friend. It should include photos and poetry telling your friend how special he or she is.

l      Plan a special day with your best friend or friends. A picnic is always fun, and it’s great for all ages.

l      If you’re all busy during the day, plan to go out for dinner with everyone.

l      Host a friendship dinner party!

l      Write your friend an e-mail to express your friendship online.

l      Buy your friend a ticket to the cinema so you can enjoy a great film together.

l      Bring a camera or visit a photo machine and take some photos of you and your friends. Enjoy yourselves!

1. Why do people celebrate Friendship Day?

A. To make friends with different people. B. To find more common things between friends.

C. To show grateful thanks between friends.  D. To send presents between friends.

2. The phrase “make the most of it” (Paragraph 2) means ______________.

A. make a change of it               B. take it seriously

C. make full use of it                D. Put your mind to it

3. In the writer’s opinion, you can celebrate Friendship Day in different ways EXCEPT ____________.

A. to have dinner outside with your friend        B. to share a film with your friend

C. to express your friendship on telephone        D. to travel abroad with your friend

★教(学)后记

                                                                                

修改后的第二稿学案作了如下几个方面的改进:

1.      删减了自学导航中的一部分内容,使得自学导航更有针对性,既减少了学生预习的时间,又紧扣这个单元的主题,做到少而精。

2.      针对学生提出的上课疲于应付学案写的内容,笔者适当减少了上课流程中的关于课文内容的一些知识点,这样学生在课堂上就不用花大量的时间在填写学案内容上,可以把这部分时间省下来,用于课堂讨论和展示;同样可以达到预期的效果;同时上课流程内容的减少也为上课过程留出了一定的悬念,这样更有利于学生在课堂上进行自我发挥,而没有把他们的思维给限制住。

3.      最后,笔者在课后拓展这一环节适当增加了一些与课文话题相关的延伸知识,有助于拓展学生的文化背景知识,尤其是对那些想要在这方面有更深入的了解和学习,又不愿意在课后花费大量的时间在搜寻与所学话题有关的知识点的学生,这无疑是一个比较好的方式。

运用这两稿学案进行阅读课的教学之后,笔者再次对所任教的高一(1)、(2)两个班级的112名学生进行同一份问卷调查。此次问卷调查共发放问卷112份,回收有效问卷112份。

调查数据统计:

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

A

25%

60%

40%

49%

28%

30%

40%

53%

28%

21%

B

52%

27%

38%

14%

63%

25%

44%

26%

47%

65%

C

15%

10%

18%

10%

5%

41%

12%

18%

20%

11%

D

8%

3%

4%

27%

4%

4%

4%

3%

5%

3%

通过这些数据不难发现:同学们普遍都认为,运用学案进行英语阅读课的学习对课文内容的理解和掌握是有帮助的。

首先,教师在充分了解所教班级学生的学情的基础上制定“学习目标”。因此,英语学案在教学目标的设定上突出了以学生为主体的思想,充分考虑学生的实际情况,学生对本堂课的学习目标有了比较清晰的了解后,在上课的过程中就有了明确的方向;由于教师把“自学导航”的内容作为作业的一部分,学生在上课之前会花一定的时间去预习,且预习的范围缩小,更有针对性,预习的效果就比较明显。

其次,英语阅读课学案给了学生一个路标,让学生对即将要学的本堂课的内容有了初步的了解之后,上课时会带着疑问去听和学,避免了以往那种散漫的学习方式,这样,学习效率就更高了。且上课过程中学生更多的是以小组讨论,交流,展示等形式发挥积极主动的作用,而不再是一味的听老师讲解,被动的回答问题。通过小组交流,小组成员对问题有了较为全面的认识,了解了其他同学的思路,方法和经验,开拓了视野,活跃了思维,大多数学生都比较喜欢这一学习方式。同时,中学生本身有争强好胜的特点,小组的竞争可以督促他们更加积极地学习。当然,老师对每个小组的整体评价方式也有利于加强学生相互之间的合作,互助。

三、学案使用后的反思

虽然在英语阅读课中运用学案教学有其优点,但在实际使用过程中,笔者还是发现了一些客观存在的问题,并且产生了一些困惑,提出了以下几点值得关注的方面:

第一、教学形式要多样化。由于班级中的同学英语水平有差异,而一堂英语阅读课的学案很难照顾到每一个学生的实际水平,这就要求老师在教学的组织过程中要开展形式多样的操练,以小组为单位,以好带差、 口头表达和书面表达并用,对每一堂课的重难点以不同的形式呈现,使不同层次的学生都能达到熟练掌握的效果。

第二、小组学习中要发挥小组长的作用。由于课堂讨论是以小组为单位进行的,而要充分发挥小组学习的优势,小组长在其中起到至关重要的作用。在组织小组讨论时,笔者发现有些小组争的不亦乐乎,但只顾自己说话,完全没有考虑到他人;而有的小组却悄无声息,都在等待别人先开口;有的小组组员不参与,也不合作,使得小组学习无法正常地开展下去;有的小组则干脆变成了某个学生的一言堂。这样的讨论和活动似乎失去了其本意,而一个好的小组长应该不仅能自己主动发言,而且要调动起小组成员的积极性,让小组成员都能得到发言的机会,所以在选择小组长时一定要慎重。

第三、对学生的表现要进行及时的评价。一个人要不但进步必须要有人不断地鼓励,帮助他树立信心,学生的学习也是如此。在漫长而艰苦的学习过程中,学生遇到困难会产生厌学、退却心理,这时及时地评价就显得尤为重要。教师应该对每一课学生所学,所掌握的内容程度进行评价,并增加学生的自身表现比较的评价,让学生看到自己的进步,不断增强学习的自信心。

四、结束语

通过以上的课堂实践,笔者发现,英语学案教学的设计,符合新课程改革的理念。教学的实践运用也充分证明了英语学案教学的科学性和实用性。但我们的英语学案还不够完善,要在今后的教学实践活动中,不断改进学案,使用好学案,让英语学案正真成为学生的好帮手,使英语学案教学焕发出更大的活力。

 

 

参考文献

人民教育出版社. 2007.普通高中课程实验教科书·英语1(必修)(第2版)「T」. 北京:人民教育出版社.

人民教育出版社. 2007.普通高中课程实验教科书·英语1(必修)(第2版) 教师教学用书「T」. 北京:人民教育出版社.

人民教育出版社. 2003. 普通高中英语课程标准(实验)(第1版)「T」. 北京:人民教育出版社.

浙江教育出版社. 2008. 浙江省普通高中新课程作业本 英语必修1「T」.杭州:浙江教育出版社 P6

 

 

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